first published in THEOD Magazine: Vol II, #3 Lammas 1995, POBox 8062, Watertown, NY, 13601
Any discussion among most Americans which concerns ethics or our moral experience will inevitably turn to religion for justification of moral principles. We are a curious people in that way; demanding separation of church and state, yet clamoring for a return to the "Christian Standards" upon which our forefathers supposedly built this country. Happily, we can turn to a religion which is experiencing an awaking in this country for moral common sense and not be troubled with such absolutist statements and their multiple amendments that are the unfortunate legacy of our country's Judeochristian obsession. The Teutonic Heathen religion offers a very practical, common-sense approach to dealing with morally problematic situations. In this paper the reader will be introduced to just what Teutonic Heathenry is through a brief description of the religion, he will be familiarized with the foundation of the Heathen moral experience, and he will be exposed to a comparison of the Heathen ethical stance to the views of the American pragmatist, John Dewey. The reader should not be mistaken by thinking that the author is making an appeal to Deweyan pragmatism for justification of the Heathen ethical stance. Rather, the author intends to point out striking similarities between the two moral schools by comparing the ideas set forth by the writings of each. In a number of cases throughout this paper, the reader will discover that the Heathen ethical school and Deweyan pragmatism share remarkable similarities, and one philosophy will, in certain cases, complement the other.
II. What is Teutonic Heathenry?
Stated in simple terms, Teutonic Heathenry was the religion of the Germanic folk of northern Europe during pre-Judeochristian times. However, to call Heathenry a religion is to approach it on a too simplistic footing. According to Edred Thorsson, Heathenry is not merely a belief, but a way, a means of doing; not a ranting of theology in hopes of being saved for one's immoral behavior performed while not at church on Sunday.1 Heathenry affects every aspect of one's life, not just his religious or views. The Heathen way pervades one's dealings with others, his successes gained in every-day tasks, even his dream state.2 Naturally, the way of leading one's life in this manner cannot be a simple, cut-and-dried matter. The Teutonic Heathen worships a pantheon of Gods and Goddesses particular to the shared cultural experience of the Germanic folk. To the Saxons and Angles of pre-Judeochristian England these dieties had such names as Woden, Frige, Thunor, Ing Frea, and Freo. To the Norse peoples these same dieties were called Odhinn, Frigg, Thorr, Yngvi Freyr, and Freyja.3 The Germanic folk of ancient times celebrated the Gods and Goddesses and their ties with them through feasting and rites on certain holy days. According to two modern-day Heathen authors, Heathenry boasts a complexity and philosophical sophistication that dwarfs the superstitious, absolutist dogmas of the Middle East.4 It sensibly follows that a view of morality from such a religion would be equally complex, sophisticated, and free from dualistic hang-ups about absolute versions of right and wrong.
Teutonic Heathenry grew among the Germanic peoples of
northwestern Europe. The Germanic peoples were those of Indo-European origin who
developed their particular cultural, physical, and religious traits in the
Jutland, southern Sweden, and Prussian geographical area. From this area the
Germanics migrated outward to inhabit most of Northwest Europe.5
Originally used to describe one Germanic tribe, the Teutons, the term Teutonic
has become a descriptor of all Germanic people and, hence, interchangeable with
the term Germanic.6 After the Roman invasion of northwestern Europe and the
subsequent Judeochristian invasion, both occurring during the first millennium
of this era, the Germanic people could almost be divided into two groups based
on their religions. Those who lived in the more populous towns and cities had
converted, by means which included forced conversions by local rulers, to
Judeochristianity. Those who lived in the country still held to their ancestral
religion. The Roman term for these non-converted country dwellers was pagani,
the Latin word for "countrymen". The Teutonic equivalent was heathen, a term
that described those who lived in the heath lands, or in the countryside. From
these terms we derive our pagan and heathen, respectively.7 From this
short discussion the reader should be able to understand what is
referenced when he sees the term Teutonic Heathenry.
The way to experience life known as Teutonic Heathenry is
not dead. A resurgence of the religion is occurring today, and strongly in
America. A number of groups across the country are embracing the ideas of their
ancient forebears. They seek to worship the old Gods and live by the warrior
code that was once pervasive in Northwest Europe. One group in particular, the
Gering (pronounced "yairing") Theod of Anglo-Saxon Theodish culture, centered in Watertown, New York, is putting its greatest effort into reconstructing the old religion of the Angles and Saxons of pre-Judeochristian England. Called Retroheathenry, its approach is to pick up where the Angles and Saxons left off when Judeochristianity interrupted the natural progression of those Teutonic tribes. It is from the findings and writings of this group that much of this paper's Teutonic ethical tradition is taken.
III. The Teutonic Heathen Concept of the Moral Experience
A. Experience as a Guide
The Teutonic people followed time-tested methods for their actions,
practically every aspect of their lives was influenced by historical precedent.
It was so with their religion as well. Gert McQueen put it best when she wrote,
"All Heathen religions sprang from the soul of the people; that is, they are
autochthonous. Their origins are rooted in man's experience in the natural world
- experiences that produce the state of awe that becomes synonymous with his
Gods."8 The same sentiment is echoed in other writings within the Teutonic
Heathen awakening.9 So, why is there such an emphasis on experience within
the Teutonic tradition? Because experience is the vehicle from which we
learn. Garman Lord wrote, "The most important teaching that a
Lareow [a teacher of Anglo-Saxon lore] does is his teaching of himself, for Theodish Belief has a saying that: 'Everything that we are taught is false; everything that we learn is true.'"10 Essentially, experience was what put the ancient Germanics in tune with their Gods and it was at the heart of their cultural practices. Because of this, the modern Heathen looks to his ancestors and their practices today in order to reestablish the same beneficial conditions that his ancestors enjoyed.
The American philosopher, John Dewey, would be very
excited and encouraged by the approach that the ancient Teutonic Heathen had
toward ethics and by the effort of the modern Teutonic Heathen to reestablish it
today. Dewey would marvel at the integration of experience into his world view
that the ancient Teutonic Heathen had, and applaud the attempts of the modern
Heathen to piece together the practices of his ancestors. Why would Dewey be so
impressed? Because he would have found a people very willing to put so much
faith in experience as opposed to relying on divine decree for their ethical
basis. In order to understand this, the reader must gain an appreciation for
John Dewey's preoccupation with experience. Dewey wrote essay after essay that
proclaimed the superiority of experience as a basis for making moral decisions,
finding out facts, understanding how the world operates, etc. In fact, Dewey
could very well have been describing Teutonic Heathenry in the following
passage: "...[one] assumes as a matter of course that experience, controlled in
specifiable ways, is the avenue that leads to the facts and
laws of nature."11 The reader should pay particular attention to the following statement, keeping in mind the previous passages quoted from modern Teutonic Heathen writers:
"...I would suggest that the future of religion is connected with the possibility of developing a faith in the possibilities of human experience and human relationships that will create a vital sense of the solidarity of human interest and inspire action to make that sense a reality. If our nominally religious institutions learn how to use the symbols and rites to express and enhance such a faith, they may become useful allies of a conception of life that is in harmony with knowledge and social needs."12
The most sensible conclusion that one can draw here is that Teutonic Heathenry and Deweyan pragmatism are in virtually complete agreement concerning the approach to experiencing the world, morality, and religion.
B. The Thews
Through experience the ancient Teutonic Heathens learned that certain character traits should be valued above others. When applied in the right setting, these character traits, known as thews, gather worth to a man, and increase his respectability and esteem in the eyes of the Gods and other men. These thews as described by Swain Wodening are:
1. Bield/Boldness- Bravery or courage.
2. Steadfastness- The enduring of one's wyrd; a term which can only loosely be defined as "one's lot in life" and "the consequences of one's actions".
3. Troth- Loyalty to one's friends, kindred, lord, or God(s). This was considered to be one of the highest thews.
4. Gyve/Givefullness- Generosity; perhaps the highest of thews.
5. Gestening, Guestliness- Hospitality.
6. Sooth- Truth and honesty.
7. Wrake- Vengeance for the murder or harming of one's kinsmen; not just a thew, but an obligation.
8. Evenhead- Equality of the sexes; both sexes are treated the same under the law.
9. Friendship- Loyalty to one's friends was as valued as loyalty to one's kinsmen by the ancient Teutonic Heathen, so it is among modern Teutonic Heathen.
10. Freedom- Individualism; a man's reliance on himself.
11. Wisdom- So high was wisdom valued by the Teutonic peoples that the God of Wisdom, Woden, was also the chieftain of the Teutonic pantheon.
12. Busyship/Workhardiness- Only through hard work can one expect to survive.
These thews were considered essential to the maintenance of society, and omission of them from one's life would result in that person being shunned and avoided by the members of his community due to his worthless nature.13 Still, the author gets the impression that these are not hard and fast absolutes. For instance, Wodening states under Sooth that lying should be strongly avoided unless lied to.14 Additionally, providing guestliness to the man who tries to break into your home in order to steal from you and kill you is the act of a fool, not a worthy, respectable man. From this, one can gather that the thews are to be applied to the situation, not followed blindly.
Dewey would tend to agree with the author's conclusion
above. In The Middle Works, Volume 14, Dewey writes, "There is a long record of
past experimentation in conduct, and there are cumulative verifications which
give many principles a well earned prestige. Lightly to disregard them is the
height of foolishness. But social situations alter; it is also foolish not to
observe how old principles actually work under new conditions, and not to modify
them so that they will be more effectual instrument judging new cases."15
John Dewey, like the Teutonic Heathen, is telling us through these passages that
our moral experience is neither a blind adherence to codified law which inhibits
moral judgement, nor is it an atmosphere of "anything goes". We have certain
time-tested modes of behavior that will benefit our moral situation, but this is
true only when they are applied with a healthy
dose of common sense and selectivity. Heathenry would surely agree with Dewey when he wrote, "Invariant virtue appears to be as mechanical as uninterrupted vice, for true excellence changes with conditions. Unless character rises to overcome some new difficulty or conquer some temptation from an unexpected quarter we suspect its grain only a veneer."16
Both philosophies are committed to using intellect to determine courses of action. Consider the remarks found in Theod magazine in regard to choosing a course of action:
"In Christianity, people don't like to think. That is how Christianity got started. It got started during the fall of the Roman Empire, when people could no longer be sure of anything, because people were afraid and wanted to have certainty. They wanted a god that was absolute, so that thinking would be unnecessary. ... We can see now that there is no certainty, and that we can't stop thinking... and [we must] try to think right. In other words, we have to use that soul and that mind that is the gods' wonderful gift to us."17
Now consider Dewey's statement on the same matter, "We are confronted with
another case of the all too human love of certainty, a case of the wish for an
intellectual patent issued by authority."18 So, in the Judeochristian
moral experience one is commanded to "turn the other cheek", a virtue that
should be followed in every situation, for Yahweh (Jehovah) alone doles out
vengeance. Though the Teutonic Heathen thews list Gyve/Givefullness as proper, even admirable conduct, the author feels that one would have a long search for any Teutonic Heathen who would give his sword to a man who would cut him down with it, and an even longer search for another Teutonic Heathen who would not think the man a fool for giving him the sword. Once again we find the Teutonic Heathen and Deweyan views very compatible.
C. Good and Evil in the Trenches
To understand the Teutonic Heathen view of good and evil,
one must come to an understanding of that group's view of the cosmos and the
relationship their Gods and Goddesses have to it. An in-depth discussion of the
Teutonic Heathen concept of the cosmos is too complex a subject for the somewhat
limited space of this paper, however a simplified description will lend enough
information to set a foundation needed for our purposes here. Very simply put,
the Teutonic Heathen sees a division in the cosmos between order and disorder
that is more or less determined by the ongoing activities of the inhabitants of
it. The innangard includes the realms of gods and men in which order and harmony
is maintained. Within these realms the beings who inhabit them may grow,
prosper, and better themselves. Opposed to the innangard is the utangard, the
realms of chaos and destruction. These two realms are not magical fairylands,
tucked away in a story book, they exist on the physical, spiritual, and all
other planes. On the physical plane these divisions are most evident in society
or the social arrangement. The best example is that of the hamlets of
Anglo-Saxon England. Those who were part of the hamlet worked toward its
survival, order, and prosperity. What existed away from the hamlet included
highwaymen, outlaws, and dangerous wild animals. The representation of the two
divisions of the cosmos on the physical plane is a reflection of a similar
scenario on the spiritual plane. The Gods and
Goddesses built Asgard and Middle Earth, the abodes of Gods and men, respectively, as realms of order that can be inhabited by creatures of consciousness such as us, both Gods and men. On the spiritual plane forces of disorder, chaos, and unthinking, raw power surround the innangard.19
The innangard must be protected from without and within.
Actions whose consequences threaten the existence, health, and order of society
constitute the evil that must be avoided.20 The reader is reminded that
these conditions apply both to the realm men and women, Middle Earth, and the
realm of the Gods and Goddesses, known as Asgard; for the Gods and Goddesses
comprise a divine society of their own. The author contends that Woden, chieftain of the Gods and the God of Wisdom, recognized the value and usefulness of the thews within the divine society of Asgard and arranged the experiences from which his folk in Middle Earth, the Teutonics, could learn these valuable principles. Fortunately, he gave man the ability to use his mind and think; to give careful consideration to a situation before employing a thew in the "invariant virtue" fashion quoted from Dewey earlier in this paper.21 For example, a man of a small village generously offers hospitality to an outlaw whose known intent is to rob and burn down the village. What is listed as a thew at face value can become a part of a crime when applied
incorrectly and unthinkingly. From such instances as mentioned above we have derived laws against aiding and abetting criminals. The reader must now realize that the Teutonic Heathen has been charged by the Gods and his fellow man to carry out moral deliberation with the consequences of his actions in mind; the well-being of the innangard depends on it. So, to the Teutonic Heathen, there should be no doubt that morality, choosing good from evil, has a decidedly social aspect to it.
Passages written by John Dewey concerning the social
aspect of morality seem to agree with the Teutonic Heathen approach to the
matter. Dewey's writings on this matter speak for themselves, and only need to
be quoted. "These two facts, that moral judgement and moral responsibility are
the work wrought in us by the social environment, signify that all morality is
because we ought to take into account the effect of our acts upon the welfare of others, but because of facts. Others do take account of what we do, and they respond accordingly to our acts."22 A more clear and direct description of the preceding paragraph is, "Well-grounded moral objecton to a mode of conduct rests upon the kind of social connections that figure,..."23
Interestingly enough, the two thought patterns that are being evaluated in this paper seem to be in agreement on even the social role of morality.
Now the matter of morality's role with regard to the
individual must be addressed. In order to understand how man is affected by his
moral experience, one must have an understanding of man's relationship to the
Gods and Goddesses according to Teutonic thinking. Unfortunately,
Judeochristianity has tainted the Western world's view of man's relationship
with his gods, any gods. Judeochristianity would have us think that all
relationships between men and gods are that of servant to master. The servant
must be punished by the master when he "acts up' or "steps out of line', which
is to be expected in such an arrangement of divine decree and blind, servile
submission and obedience; hence the warped view that Judeochristianity has of
sin, it is that if transgression and punishment. The Teutonic Heathen view of
mankind's relationship with the Gods and Goddesses is very unlike that of
Judeochristianity. Garman Lord and Edred Thorsson have produced excellent works
that clarify this relationship. According to these two writers, man's position
in relation to the Gods and Goddesses is that of junior partners in an
undertaking that permeates all realms. We are the means by which the Gods and
Goddesses expand order and consciousness in the organic
world, that of Middle Earth. Ours is a relationship of give and take, not one of unquestioningly obeying divine commands.24
So, what impact does this relationship have on how the
human moral experience affects us individually? According to Teutonic Heathenry,
it comes down to this: Our performance in our moral experience is a means by
which we gain worth and earn a place in heaven. Having presented this statement,
one must immediately dismiss any Judeochristian trappings that have worked their
ways into such concepts as heaven and hell. Thorsson refers to Middle Earth as
somewhat of a proving ground for the Gods and Goddesses;25 mankind figures into
that equation, perhaps most importantly of all things to be proven. We prove
ourselves by making our moral judgements wisely, acting with decisiveness, and
accepting the consequences of those actions performed through our moral
judgements. As one can plainly see, this is a continuous cycle, and through this
we are the "captains of our own destiny". Through this cycle we elevate
ourselves out of a "sinful" or unworthy state and gain worth in the eyes of the
Gods and Goddesses. A worthy man or woman is taken into heaven, or Asgard, the
home of the Gods and Goddesses. Once again, the reader is reminded to dispense
with Judeochristian notions of an afterlife. As mentioned before, Middle Earth
is a reflection of what exists on the spiritual plane. Because of this, we
cannot entertain fanciful Judeochristian
ideas of ourselves in heaven as angels jumping from cloud to cloud and strumming our harps as we view streets made of gold in a land of milk and honey. No, the worthy Heathen's task in heaven is to assist the Gods and Goddesses in their own effort to continue the divine society. To put it into terms that most laymen can understand: We are playing college ball here in Middle Earth. If we are big enough and bad enough, morally speaking, we get recruited by the pros to go play in the big leagues. The less-than-worthy man simply sinks into the realm of Hel, a Teutonic giantess, where his station in that realm is doled out according to his performance in Middle Earth. This is by no means a necessarily tormentuous fate as is popularized by
Judeochristian mythology. To once again draw on layman's terms to explain the concept of Hel's realm: The mediocre college ball player is not picked up by the pros and settles into a life of being a shipping clerk for Federal Express; or, if he squandered his time at college, he gets to work at the car wash or Burger King.
Once again, Dewey can be referenced to obtain another philosophical view of the individual's moral experience. He writes, "The notion that an abstract ready-made conscience exists in individuals and that it is only necessary to make an occasional appeal to it and indulge it in occasional crude rebukes and punishments, is associated with the causes of lack of definitive and orderly moral advance."26 This notion to which Dewey refers is a trapping of Judeochristianity which views every life, every soul as precious and worthy from its very conception. In Teutonic Heathenry that notion is held as a lie. According to Heathen thought, every soul in Middle Earth has the potential to be significant, but no more is granted; the individual must take matters from that point and become either worthy or worthless.27 Essentially, to borrow a quote from Frederick the Great, "Every man must get into heaven in his own way."28 It would seem that Dewey would agree. His quote in this paragraph points away from an inherent worth of a soul and toward a concept of gaining worth through moral experience. This is where Teutonic Heathenry seems to complement Dewey's philosophy. The notion that a high degree of worth earns us an elevated status in the afterlife and a chance to further what we have learned in Middle Earth on a grander scale is a fitting sequel to the moral experience that we have here, in Middle Earth. Otherwise, to what end do we strive to be morally good, just the experience itself? Why make ourselves better? Teutonic Heathenry provides a valid answer.
IV. Summary and Conclusion
By now the reader will hopefully have loosened his grip on the tainted Judeochristian notion that Heathenry was the unsophisticated, brutish religion of a simple, silly race of savages. Teutonic Heathenry is not only a religion, but it is a philosophy and a way of living so complex and intricate in its world view that it is beyond contemporary Judeochristian imagination. So advanced is it, that it can support and complement the writings of John Dewey, who is arguably the greatest American philosopher. Teutonic Heathenry has learned from experience behaviors which are the most beneficial to societal living. But more than that, Heathenry encourages the thinking and deliberation processes that decide the best use of those behaviors. Finally, Heathenry provides the tools with which man makes himself worthy of the company of the Gods and Goddesses in heaven, there to continue his quest for moral excellence while assisting the Gods and Goddesses in continuing their divine society.
The most important point that the reader should take from
this paper is that Teutonic Heathenry is not presented here as a religion for
everyone, nor was it ever intended for everyone. Teutonic Heathenry has never
sought a universality of anything. Every group of people who has had a shared
cultural experience has had an autochthonous religion at some point. It is the
contention of Teutonic Heathenry that Judeochristianity was wrong to preach the message of universalism. With that message came the destruction of many autochthonous religions and multiple approaches to the moral experience. Unfortunately, this practice continues today. Man and his moral and religious experience is best served when he looks to the learning of his ancestors for the basis of a world view. He should shed his unnatural leaning toward universalism and recognize the multiplicity of approaches to religious and moral experience. This may not be a cure for ethnic and racial tension, but it is a good start.
Dewey, John. The Later Works, Volume 1, Jo Ann Boydston,ed., Southern Illinois University Press: Carbondale and Edwardsville, IL, 1988.
Dewey, John. The Later Works, Volume 5, Jo Ann Boydston, ed. Southern Illinois University Press: Carbondale and Edwardsville, IL, 1988.
Dewey, John. The Middle Works, Volume 14, Jo Ann Boydston, ed. Southern Illinois University Press: Carbondale and Edwardsville, IL, 1988.
Garman Lord. An Introduction to Theodish Belief. Endweorc Press: Watertown, NY, 1993.
McQueen, Gert. A Short History of Anglo-Saxon Theodism. Theod: Watertown, NY, 1992.
O'Halloran, Dan. "Teutonic Culture: Development of the Folk", in Idunna, Volume 6, Number 2, Issue 23, June 1994.
O'Halloran, Dan J. "Teutonic Culture: The Development of the Folk", in Idunna, Volume 6, Number 3, Issue 24, September, 1994.
"Theodish Belief for Young People: Truth & Freedom of Conscience", in Theod, Volume 1, Number 2, Waelburga, 1994.
"Theodish Belief for Young People: Open Mindedness and 'Thinking Twice'", in Theod, Volume 1, Number 3, Lammastide, 1994.
Thorsson, Edred. A Book of Troth. Llewellyn Publications: St. Paul, Minn., 1989.
Wodening, Eric. "Is it Odhinn or Woden?", in Idunna, Volume 5, Number 2, Issue 19, June, 1993.
Wodening, Swain. Beyond Good and Evil: Wyrd and Germanic Heathen Ethics.
Endweorc Press: Watertown, NY, 1994.
1 Thorsson, Edred, A Book of Troth, pp. xi-xv and 1-8.
2 In his booklet, An Introduction to Theodish Belief, Garman Lord states that there is a spiritual aspect to everything man does. This concept has been eradicated from most people due to dualistic Judeochristian influences. A kind of spiritual craftsmanship in all that a man does is a crucial tenant for the Heathen. See Garman Lord, pp. 15-16.
3 Wodening, Eric, "Is it Odhinn or Woden?", Idunna, Vol. 5, No. 2, Issue 19, pp. 19-20.
4 This claim, interestingly enough, is the exact opposite of what the church fathers and many anthropologists and historians would have one believe. Judeochristian information authorities have historically touted their religion as the one of intelligent men while playing off all other religions as either the quaint mythologies of children's bedtime stories, or the outright work of the Abrahamic patron of evil, Satan. See "Theodish Belief for Young People: Truth and Freedom of Conscience", Theod, Vol. 1 No. 2, pp. 28-31; Thorsson, pp. 1-2; McQueen, Gert, A Short History of Anglo-Saxon Theodism, p. 1; and Garman Lord, p. 21.
5 O'Halloran, Dan, J., "Teutonic Culture: The Development of the Folk", Parts I & II, Idunna, Vol. 6, Nos. 2 &3.
6 Thorsson, pp. 9-10.
7 Theod, Vol. 1, No. 2, pp. 28-31.
8 McQueen, p. 1.
9 Thorsson goes to great lengths to point out that Troth means holding true to the ways of one's ancestors in experiencing the ancestral gods. See Thorsson, 1-8. Garman Lord points to the folk experience factor of Retroheathenry as a means by which man can transcend the spiritual fragmentation of absolutist doctrines and aspire to spiritual integrity. See Garman Lord, p. 20.
10 Garman Lord, p. 7.
11 The author here will take some license and understand Dewey's "...facts and laws of nature," to be all-encompassing and include the discovery of the Gods and Goddesses and their whims, as well as moral principles. See Dewey, John, The Later Works, Vol. 1,p. 351.
12 Dewey, The Later Works, Vol. 5, pp. 273-274. Reading this passage allows one to understand Gert McQueen's bold statement of, "Heathenry is...the way of the future." See McQueen, p. 5.
13 Wodening, Swain, Beyond Good and Evil: Wyrd and Germanic Heathen Ethics, pp. 1-7.
14 Ibid., p.5.
15 Dewey, The Middle Works, Vol. 14, p. 165.
16 Ibid., p212.
17 "Theodish Belief for Young People: Open Mindedness and 'Thinking True'", Theod, Vol. 1, No.3, p. 48.
18 This remark was made in response to the proposition that there should be a fixed measure, whether set by precedent or decree, against which we should judge every action for correctness. See Dewey, The Middle Works, Vol. 14, p. 166.
19 A better and more elaborate depiction of the concept of innangard/utangard is presented by Swain Wodening. The author has tried to do justice to Wodening's work, given the need to limit the complexity of the discussion. See Wodening, Beyond Good and Evil, pp. 15-19 and 23-24.
21 Dewey, The Middle Works, Vol. 14, p.165.
22 Ibid., p. 217.
23 Ibid., p. 218.
24 Garman Lord, p. 22 and Thorsson, pp. 33, 65, & 80.
25 Thorsson, p. 80.
26 Dewey, The Middle Works, Vol, 14, p. 219.
27 Garman Lord, p. 25.
28 Seldes, George, The Great Thoughts, p. 143.